They are therefore genetically identical and will not be rejected by the patient's immune system. Stem cells produced in this way could be transferred to the patient. Therapeutic cloning does result in the destruction of an embryo after stem cells are extracted and this destruction has stirred controversy over the morality of the procedure. These issues will be different for growth and transplant of adult, embryonic and therapeutically-cloned stem cells. 7. A whole new field of medical treatments is possible because of the technologies behind the therapeutic cloning process. The idea of therapeutic cloning would therefore be tantamount to murder. It may help to treat genetic diseases. 2. That could mean an ACL could be repaired in weeks instead of months because a new ligament could be attached. 6. They will also depend on whether the stem cells are to be used for therapy or research. It could theoretically be used to grow a replacement organ, for example, to generate skin for a burn victim, or to create nerve cells for someone suffering from brain damage or a neurological condition. Some variables which would be considered when discussing stem cells include: Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. 2. What if scientists could alter the genetic sequences to correct the issues that are causing a disease or disorder for the individual through the therapeutic cloning process? Devastating conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, could be treated. This genetic material can then be transferred to an unfertilized egg that has also had its nucleus removed. Search Categories . Medical treatments work best when proactive efforts can be taken instead of reactive efforts. therapeutic cloning Essay Examples. will always come from a donor – unless stem cells were collected from the patient as an embryo. For those waiting for a kidney, it could be up to 5 years, and sometimes longer, to find someone who is a direct match. But there are clinical, ethical and social issues with their use. Sometimes, there are no right or wrong answers, or even answers at all. This practice could prevent disease, limit the risks of future health issues, and control genetic or chromosomal issues that some patients may face. Cultured stem cells could be contaminated with viruses which would be transferred to a patient. Therapeutic cloning provides an exact match to the individual who has a tissue or organ need. Although human stem cells have been produced in this way, and used in research, there is no evidence that, as yet, they have been used to treat anyone. Once reconstituted, the egg begins to divide. Alternatively, donor cells can come from a person with closely-matched tissue types. Therapeutic cloning could produce stem cells with the same genetic make-up as the patient. The technique involves the transfer of the nucleus from a cell of the patient, to an egg cell whose nucleus has been removed. Many long-term diseases could be immediately controlled, like diabetes. There are also fewer complications if the stem cells come from a close member of the family. At what stage of its development should an embryo be regarded as, and treated as a person? Mother Nature may be predictable and consistent, but she is also unpredictable at times as well. Read about our approach to external linking. use a patient's own stem cells. This genetic material can then be transferred to an unfertilized egg that has also had its nucleus removed. Tissue rejection is no longer a threat. These are somatic cells and the nucleus contains genetic material. Then, a cell is taken from the organism to be cloned and its nucleus is removed. But there are clinical. We must have a definitive definition of life. Somatic cells do carry the same DNA information as the individual, so any genetic concerns would also transfer. Whether the benefits of stem cell use outweigh the objections. After 4-5 days, embryonic stem cells begin to form. In the United States, over the past 20 years, there have been an estimated 400,000 eggs placed into cold storage. These mutations have caused embryos to not divide as expected. Therapeutic cloning refers to the removal of a nucleus from almost any cell in an adult body. Not only would this process eliminate wait times, it would also reduce costs. These issues will be different for growth and transplant of adult, embryonic and therapeutically-cloned stem cells. Some argue that the pros outweigh the cons with regards to treating disease whilst others have likened the destruction to an abortion. Sample exam questions - cell biology - AQA, Home Economics: Food and Nutrition (CCEA). and social issues with their use. Much of the research is being carried out by commercial clinics, so reported successes are not subject to peer review. There is always a threat of cell mutation. Scientists believe they could transition these cells toward specific tissue types, based on the need of the patient. Even with modern pain management techniques in place, women find that egg extraction can be very painful. Critical organs are few and far between because of the need for a fatality, the ability to preserve the organ at the time of death, and the need for a direct match to the recipient. The best estimates of need for therapeutic cloning place the number of needed eggs at over 1 million. Embryos could come to be viewed as a commodity, and not as an embryo that could develop into a person. Embryonic stem cells have a unique ability to form into different types of tissue. They are therefore genetically identical and will not be rejected by the patient's immune system. to. Somatic cells do not have the same attributes as new stem cells. Here are some of the pros and cons of therapeutic cloning to consider when evaluating this practice. How Therapeutic Cloning Works: Therapeutic cloning is sometimes referred to as "somatic cell nuclear transfer" or "SCNT". Therapeutic cloning refers to the removal of a nucleus from almost any cell in an adult body. leader basketball american dream technology goals the principle of population importance of family romeo and juliet human rights tiger pollution domestic violence responsible jane eyre social imagination. To proceed with therapeutic cloning, our society would need to come to a consensus about how life is defined. SCNT involves removing the nucleus of an egg cell, replacing it with the material from the nucleus of a "somatic cell" (such as a skin cell) and stimulating this cell to begin dividing. Our best solution, at this point, would be to harvest stem cells from cord blood and then preserve them for therapeutic cloning needs in the future. The embryonic stem cells would be harvested at 4-5 days and would not be able to survive on its own, but some view that process as halting the natural progression of life in an unnatural way. Adult stem cell transplants use a patient's own stem cells. Then we must realize that the 1 million number is a yearly number that is required. Otherwise, we would continue to be polarized. That means the supply of eggs would need to double just to begin the process of curing disease. These are somatic cells and the nucleus contains genetic material. For example, proto-cols for the in vitro maturation of human oocytes are unreli-able and still need to be devel-oped. There is no guarantee how successful these therapies will be, for example the use of stem cells in replacing nerve cells lost in Parkinson’s disease patients. There are more than 100,000 people in the United States and countless others around the world who are waiting on an organ transplant right now.