Reply. Often confused with 'Laciniata'. The leaves are alternate, simple, and entire or with a slightly crenate margin, 5–10 cm long and 3–7 cm broad, with 6–7 veins on each side of the leaf (7–10 veins in Fagus orientalis). The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is a deciduous shade tree from Europe. The code for its use in Europe is .mw-parser-output span.smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}.mw-parser-output span.smallcaps-smaller{font-size:85%}fasy (from FAgus SYlvatica). Beech leaf disease (BLD) is an emerging disease caused by a nematode, or microscopic worm. Fern-leaved European beech (Fagus sylvatica'Asplenifolia'): A graceful, dark green, cut-leaved foliage which turns a golden brown in fall; reaches 60 feet high and 50 feet wide. From chairs to parquetry (flooring) and staircases, the European beech can do almost anything other than heavy structural support, so long as it is not left outdoors. It is often planted in Britain. It is more precise in the north of its range than the south, and at 600 m (2,000 ft) than at sea level.[16]. The European beech is a native European tree. Leaf Characteristics. [33][34][35], Primary Product AM 01, a smoke flavouring, is produced from Fagus sylvatica L.[36], Biscogniauxia nummularia (beech tarcrust) is an ascomycete primary pathogen of beech trees, causing strip-canker and wood rot. The European beech invests significantly in summer and autumn for the following spring. In the Balkans, it shows some hybridisation with oriental beech; these hybrid trees are named Fagus × taurica Popl. Although often regarded as native in southern England, recent evidence suggests that F. sylvatica did not arrive in England until about 4000 BC, or 2,000 years after the English Channel formed after the ice ages; it could have been an early introduction by Stone age humans, who used the nuts for food. Upright European beech (Fagus sylvatica'Fastigiata'): Columnar, upright beech reaching 45 feet high and 15 feet wide with dark green leaves. One of the most beautiful European beech forests called Sonian Forest (Forêt de Soignes/Zoniënwoud) is found in the southeast of Brussels, Belgium. They are between five and ten inches long and about four to seven inches wide. Beech planted on a march dyke (boundary hedge) in Scotland. European beech is monoecious so each tree will have both male and female flowers present in the spring. Even in old beech trees, the bark is usually smooth, rarely showing up roughened. Beech fruits are called beechnuts. Its bark is smooth, gray, and the trunk resembles an elephant's foot. The largest virgin forests made of beech trees are Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh (8,800 ha (22,000 acres)) in Ukraine[11] and Izvoarele Nerei (5,012 ha (12,380 acres) in one forest body) in Semenic-Cheile Carașului National Park, Romania. Its fine and short grain makes it an easy wood to work with, easy to soak, dye, varnish and glue. It can be found at all times of year and is not edible.[37]. Sometimes the bark of the beech is attacked by the white bark fungus, which, however, does no harm to it. Andrew Jackson Downing and Henry Winthrop Sargent, "Syntaxonomical analysis of the beech forests from Sicily", International foresters study Lake District's 'greener, friendlier forests', "Parcul Naţional Semenic – Cheile Caraşului (in Romanian)", Scientific Opinion on Safety of smoke flavour – Primary Product – AM 01, Beech Tree Collection – Photographs By Louis K. Meisel, NY, Images, location details, and measurements of remarkable beeches, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme,, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 15:09. Long, slender and deeply lobed leaves give this dense tree a fern-like appearance. [32] Slightly toxic to humans if eaten in large quantities due to the tannins and alkaloids they contain, the nuts were nonetheless pressed to obtain an oil in 19th-century England that was used for cooking and in lamps. Free-standing beech trees grow expansively and have deeply hanging branches. Changing climatic conditions may put beech populations in southern England under increased stress and while it may not be possible to maintain the current levels of beech in some sites it is thought that conditions for beech in north-west England will remain favourable or even improve. The foliage often adheres long. [5] The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is often removed from 'native' woods. Beech forests are particularly widespread in Germany. The wood rots easily if it is not protected by a tar based on a distillate of its own bark (as used in railway sleepers). In the fall, the foliage shifts to a golden yellow color. [Fagus moesiaca (Domin, Maly) Czecz.]. If you have the space for it, the European beech will provide you with unmatched year-round beauty — shimmering green leaves unfurling in the spring, dense shade in the summer, striking autumn foliage, and a pleasing winter silhouette. In the woodlands of southern Britain, beech is dominant over oak and elm south of a line from about north Suffolk across to Cardigan. The male inflorescences are long petiolate and hemispherical, each two female flowers are contained in a green, short-stalked shell. Beech leaves are typically oblong or oval and medium to dark, glossy green. For humans, the consumption of oil-containing beechnuts is not recommended because the high oxalic acid content can lead to stomach discomfort. It has an excellent finish and is resistant to compression and splitting and it is stiff when flexed. Reply. The wood of the European beech is used in the manufacture of numerous objects and implements. They are about two inches long and shine with a dark brown color. Their coloration is a light brown, the buds are covered by oppositely arranged, scale-like leaves. Oval form and low branches make this a superb tree that attracts wildlife. Many such cultivars are now available in the horticulture trade. European beech is a strikingly beautiful tree native to Europe, which has been planted widely in New England. Often bright cork warts can be seen. When crenate, there is one point at each vein tip, never any points between the veins. [29][30] It is better for paper pulp than many other broadleaved trees though is only sometimes used for this, the high cellulose content can also be spun into modal, which is used as a textile akin to cotton. American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) This is the only beech species that is an original native to North … heterophylla 'Aspleniifolia', Belfast Botanic Garden. 0. The European Beech is botanically called Fagus sylvatica . The leaves of the Beech are ovate, sprouting bright green, later they become dark green and leathery.